my presentation at the annual research meet

February 18, 2010

as part of annual research meet in HBCSE, I presented the current work of my ph.d.  It was mainly focussing on “to determine a fixed set of relation names to represent secondary school level cell biology”. The abstract can be read from here.  there were useful inputs and comments on the work.

the presentation depicted the number of concepts at 8,9,11 standards and the number of relation names required to link these concepts.


vishwakosh – vai

November 20, 2009

I happen to visit the vishwakosh (encyclopedia) office in vai on 7th nov. I was really glad to interact with the people and look at the interesting and resourceful library of classic collection and encyclopedia. It is worth visiting the library. Prof. H.C.Pradhan was discussing with Mr. Chaunde related to the biology encyclopedia.  Since i had some curiousity about it which i have also mentioned in my earlier post related to change in biological terms, I participated in their discusison. Chaunde was showing how they are managing the entries, the usage of sorting cards. The information on the sorting cards display the name of the term and also a related entry with see also. In this way, they are now trying to embedd the terms which are introduced in the textbooks. It seems that the vishwakosh project began about five years ago, the list of entries was decided but the textbook committee have overlooked this project and hence there has been discrepancies in the names of the terms. But even this problem is being handled by the vishwakosh. They are really meticulously taking care of such issues.

Over a cup of coffee, Chaunde shared his experiences about peoples responses to their work. Overall, I was satisfied with this meet, cos my quest of finding the rationale behind the change in the terms was a bit resolved.

change in the names of scientific terms in marathi textbooks

September 12, 2009

Today, discussion over lunch made me curious to find out who decides the changes in the scientific terms that are used in the textbook.

We were discussing about the Marathi Vishwakosh Project that HBCSE is involved in. In the early years of HBCSE, V G Kulkarni (Founder Director, HBCSE)  instigated the project on language in science. Since then, there are a few members who are working in this area.

Deshmukh explained the volumes of work that the project is coming up with. It has been decided to bring a separate volume for biology subject and produce it in three parts. Related to the scientific terminology, he mentioned that a few scientific terminology in marathi textbook has been changed and hence the members have to pay heed to the latest usage of the term. He gave two instances of such change: the marathi term for auricle has been changed from karnika to alind; for ventricle it has been changed from javanika to nilay;  the other instance of marathi term for skull has been changed from kavati to karkara. I was anxious to know why the name of the terms got changed, who decides that such change is required in textbook, what is the rationale behind it. May be the textbook bureau decides about these changes. Jayashree too agreed, and she added that it could be that they want to give a more specific word for a very specialized part.

But i am not yet convinced. Can a name of a scientific term change over a period of time. Well of course, if the meaning that is implied to it changes. But in this case, atleast the meanings of auricle, ventricle, skull  are not yet changed, and their english names of terms are still the same. So what makes the marathi language textbook bureau to change it. Then we thought we should check the bodies/organizations who possibly could be involved in this work. We all headed to the library, and referred a few books related to Vishwakosh, Paribhasha Granth, etc. We could find atleast two bodies who have been involved in this work since the 1970s: Bhasha Sanchalanalay (Directorate of Language); and Maharashtra Rajya Sahitya-Sanskriti Mandal (Maharashtra State Board of Literature and Culture). Perhaps one can write/meet these people and find out more.

As i am also interested in the language of science, all this discussion has made me more curious, and i am into finding out as to who decides the changes in the scientific terms and what is the rationale behind it.

minimal set of relation names in RCM

June 30, 2009

as part of my ph.d. work in the area of refined concept map (RCM) in biology education, i am working on analyzing the school textbooks of 8, 9, 11 standards on the domain of cell biology. i mapped the domain of each 3 standards using the RCM method i.e. using a fixed and a minimal set of relation names for mapping the concepts.  the hypothesis of the study was that even if the complexity in the domain increases with an increase in the number of concepts, but the relation names that provide meaning to these concepts would be a fixed and a minimal set. the following is a brief summary of the results:

std.          no. of concepts             no. of relation names

8                             75                                        11

9                           195                                        16

11                         500                                        15

the most widely used relation names are: consists of, includes, comprised of, surrounded by, located in, has function, has attribute.

i am also analyzing the other components involved, such as the frequency of relation names, the no. of concepts connected to specific relation names, etc.  across all the 3 standards.

it is really an interesting and exciting exercise which i enjoy working on.

negation of relation names

June 25, 2009

In the relations ontology we express:
eukaryotes consists of nucleus  ==> consists_of(eukaryotes, nucleus)
eurkaryotic cell enveloped by cell membrane ==> enveloped_by(cell, cell membrane)

as I am representing the school textbook, I find a few sentences to be of the form of negation. These are:

prokaryotes does not consist of nucleus ==> ~consists_of(prokaryotes, nucleus)
prokaryotes not enveloped by membrane  ==> ~enveloped_by(prokaryotes, membrane)

Such negations are useful for students to understand the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes and cannot be avoided during representation.

so my query is: can we include the negations of relation names in the relations ontology. how can we represent such negation relation names.

since ~consists_of, ~enveloped_by are negation of consists_of, enveloped_by respectively, does the relation names ~consists_of, ~enveloped_by still fall under the meronymic inclusion and spatial inclusion  respectively.

I think so.  In the above assertions, we know in reality that prokaryotes donot consists of nucleus, but this is equally important for representation. In cases such as something may cease to exist at a particular time t then we still have to represent such assertions even though these would be in negation forms.

But the question that is grappling my mind is the following:

ontology is the representation of types. it represents what exists in reality. now something that does not exist in reality, and yet if we want to represent it then would we still be creating ontology of non-existent entities. and if yes, then would it still be  ontology.

Perhaps, philosophers can  provide a convincing argument for my question.

relations and functions in biology

May 27, 2009

As we know that functions (1 to 1) are different from relations (1 to many). All functions are relations, but not all relations are functions. In the case of creating an ontology for biology, we use relations. But, in biology, is it possible to apply the functions as well. Can there be any such relation which is a function in the case of biomedical ontology. For example, part-of, composed-of, located-in, surrounded-by, etc. are all relations in the context of biomedical ontology. Or do we have to always understand biology ontology in terms of relations only and not functions.

Prof. Barry Smith (University of Buffalo) clarifies the distinction between ontology of relations and the way relations and functions are treated in a set theory. Further he emphasizes on the functional associations (in mathematical sense) can occur in process relations. For example, process-a regulates process-b.

Now this sounds interesting. In this case, I think, some of the process relations can be functional. Such process relations are : regulates, transforms into, derives from, develops into, preceded by, results into, etc.

Let me illustrate with a few assertions:
Larva transforms into pupa
zygote develops into foetus
blastula transforms into gastrula

What I am trying to point out is that the domain and range for these process relations will always be of  1 to 1 mapping. So, these process relations can be of functional type.

But the structural relations such as part of, surrounded by can not be of functional type as a domain can have many ranges in such relations.

P.S. This post is based on my discussion on relations and functions in biology on the OBO mailing list.


January 6, 2009

Our research study on Refined Concept Maps for Science Education: A Feasibility Study got presented today in the Episteme-3 conference in HBCSE, Mumbai, India. The main highlights of the paper presentation have been on demonstrating the students’ ease of using the refined concept maps i.e. to apply a minimal set of relation names (linking words), without any loss of knowledge. The RCM method was compared with other two methods: description and traditional concept maps. We applied ANOVA and T-Test for statistical analysis. The study indicated an increase in the number of correct relations for the domain of nucleus and mitochondria. The relation names served as facilitator or an anchoring device for representing knowledge.

Episteme 3 is part of Episteme series of biennial conferences that is organized by HBCSE.